A lumbar puncture is when a needle is inserted between two lumbar vertebrae to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid is the fluid that surrounds your spine and brain to protect them from injuries. When performed in radiology, fluoroscopic guidance is used to place the needle in the cerebrospinal fluid which provides more precise positioning. Lumbar punctures are done to help diagnose:
Occasionally lumbar punctures are used to inject other medications into the cerebrospinal fluid.
An image guided biopsy involves the use of technology as guidance, either an ultrasound or CT scan, to help collect samples of tissue. The imaging allows the doctor to more accurately determine the exact location of the tissue that needs to be sampled and whether it is benign, malignant, or infectious. The imaging also allows the doctor to safely insert needles. Through image guided biopsies, doctors are able to sample the following: